Literature on construction

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  • Investigation of capillary adhesion between the microcantilever and the substrate with electronic speckle pattern interferometry, Xide Li et al. (2006)
    TitleInvestigation of capillary adhesion between the microcantilever and the substrate with electronic speckle pattern interferometry
    AuthorsXide Li, Yun Peng
    PublicationApplied Physics Letters
    DateDecember 04, 2006
    AbstractIn this letter, the authors present an experimental study of the capillary adhesion of microcantilevers and substrate using electronic speckle pattern interferometry. The transient deformation of a microcantilever caused by the capillary force was measured and the energy function of the adhesion system was constructed based on the independent parameters of adhesion length and volume fraction of the adhesion medium. Therefore, the capillary force could be theoretically determined by the minimum energy function, and the deformation of the microcantilever at the equilibrium state could be calculated and compared with the experimental result.
  • A thermomechanical model for adhesion reduction of MEMS cantilevers, J.W. Rogers et al. (2002)
    TitleA thermomechanical model for adhesion reduction of MEMS cantilevers
    AuthorsJ.W. Rogers, T.J. Mackin, L.M. Phinney
    PublicationJournal of Microelectromechanical Systems
    DateOct. 2002
    AbstractPresents a thermomechanical model that describes adhesion reduction in MEMS structures using laser heating. A fracture mechanics model is developed where the interface between the stiction-failed microcantilever and the substrate is treated as a crack, and the energy release rate is calculated using elastic theory. In order to include the effect of a temperature difference between the microcantilever and the substrate, an associated thermal strain energy is included in the fracture model. If the free length is longer than the critical buckling length, the beam buckles decreasing the strain energy of the system. For surface-micromachined polycrystalline silicon cantilevers with an initial crack length of 400 /spl mu/m, the model predicts that a temperature difference of 100 K repairs microcantilevers as long as 1300 /spl mu/m. The peeling of adhered beams from the substrate after laser irradiation is experimentally shown with measured crack lengths within 15% of predicted values indicating that the proposed model establishes the mechanism of adhesion reduction by laser irradiation.
  • Mechanical stability and adhesion of microstructures under capillary forces. I. Basic theory, C.H. Mastrangelo et al. (1993)
    TitleMechanical stability and adhesion of microstructures under capillary forces. I. Basic theory
    AuthorsC.H. Mastrangelo, C.H. Hsu
    PublicationJournal of Microelectromechanical Systems
    AbstractStrong capillary forces are developed in the fabrication process of surface micromachined structures during the wet etch of sacrificial layers. The magnitude of these forces is in some cases sufficient to deform and pin these structures to the substrate resulting in device failure. The deflection, mechanical stability, and adhesion of thin micromechanical structure under capillary forces are examined. These phenomena are divided into two separate stages of mechanical collapse and adhesion to the underlying substrate. The basic theory of collapse is described. Approximate conditions are computed to prevent contact to the substrate
  • Elastic energy methods of design analysis, Ralph J. Harker (1986)
    TitleElastic energy methods of design analysis
    AuthorRalph J. Harker
  • Formulas for stress and strain, Raymond J Roark (1975)
    TitleFormulas for stress and strain
    AuthorRaymond J Roark
  • Electromigration-Induced Failures in, and Microstructure and Resistivity of, Sputtered Gold Films, J. C. Blair et al. (1972)
    TitleElectromigration-Induced Failures in, and Microstructure and Resistivity of, Sputtered Gold Films
    AuthorsJ. C. Blair, C. R. Fuller, P. B. Ghate, C. T. Haywood
    PublicationJournal of Applied Physics
    DateFebruary 00, 1972
  • Electromigration—A brief survey and some recent results, J.R. Black (1969)
    TitleElectromigration—A brief survey and some recent results
    AuthorJ.R. Black
    PublicationElectron Devices, IEEE Transactions on
    AbstractRecently, electromigration has been identified as a potential wear-out failure mode for semiconductor devices employing metal film conductors of inadequate cross-sectional area. A brief survey of electromigration indicates that although the effect has been known for several decades, a great deal of the processes involved is still unknown, especially for complex metals and solute ions. Earlier design equations are improved to account for conductor film cross-sectional area as well as film structure, film temperature, and current density. Design curves are presented which permit the construction of high reliability "infinite life" aluminum conductors for specific conditions of maximum current and temperature stress expected in use. It is also shown that positive gradients, in terms of electron flow, of temperature, current density, or ion diffusion coefficient foreshorten conductor life because they present regions where vacancies condense to form voids.